The middle one is called a tayu, which is the highest rank of oiran/courtesan, these are cultered and refined prostitiues. Tayu are the only ones who wore those towering shoes. Next to her are kamuro, "Child attendents" they were her apprentices.
朧月象ヲ也 Oboro Tsukiyou o Nari
Courtesan. Hanging scroll; ink and color on paper. About 1870,s, Japan. by artist Utagawa Yoshimori. MFA. William Sturgis Bigelow Collection