Game Theory. The theoretical utility function for a given situation would be the perfectly rational response to the situation. However, in real life, a player will add biases, perceptions, beliefs, etc. to that theoretical function. This “real” utility function is the yardstick by which the player will judge their own success on the outcome. The projected utility function will be different to the “real” one, either by posturing, bluffing, or pure incompleteness of information.