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Comparison of galactolipid biosynthetic pathways in cyanobacteria, red algae, and green plants. The mgdE gene encodes the epimerase that catalyzes the conversion of glucolipids (GlcDG) to galactolipids (MGDG). Only cyanobacteria have this gene. In contrast, in red algae and green plants, MGDG is directly synthesized by transfer of galactose to diacylglycerol. © 2014 Naoki Sato. #UTokyoResearch

Comparison of galactolipid biosynthetic pathways in cyanobacteria, red algae, and green plants. The mgdE gene encodes the epimerase that catalyzes the conversion of glucolipids (GlcDG) to galactolipids (MGDG). Only cyanobacteria have this gene. In contrast, in red algae and green plants, MGDG is directly synthesized by transfer of galactose to diacylglycerol. © 2014 Naoki Sato. #UTokyoResearch

Image of layered methane hydrate deposits. © Jun Matsushima. #UTokyoResearch

Image of layered methane hydrate deposits. © Jun Matsushima. #UTokyoResearch

Upper left: Cilia are present in the human trachea to discharge foreign bodies as sputum. Top right: fine 3D structure of cilia taken by cryo-electron tomography. The 96-nanometer periodic structure is visible. Bottom: If there is no nano-molecular ruler, a repeating structure is not formed and cilia are immotile. When the molecular ruler is present, dynein motor proteins are aligned in accordance with the ruler’s 96-nanometer period and cilia are motile. © 2014 Masahide Kikkawa…

Upper left: Cilia are present in the human trachea to discharge foreign bodies as sputum. Top right: fine 3D structure of cilia taken by cryo-electron tomography. The 96-nanometer periodic structure is visible. Bottom: If there is no nano-molecular ruler, a repeating structure is not formed and cilia are immotile. When the molecular ruler is present, dynein motor proteins are aligned in accordance with the ruler’s 96-nanometer period and cilia are motile. © 2014 Masahide Kikkawa…

(Left) Image of a platinous anti-cancer drug encapsulated in a polymeric micelle, (center) extent of cancer in transgenic mice that develop spontaneous pancreatic cancer treated with saline, unencapsulated free drug, and encapsulated drug, and (right) survival rates for mice under each treatment. © Cabral Horacio et al. #UTokyoResearch

(Left) Image of a platinous anti-cancer drug encapsulated in a polymeric micelle, (center) extent of cancer in transgenic mice that develop spontaneous pancreatic cancer treated with saline, unencapsulated free drug, and encapsulated drug, and (right) survival rates for mice under each treatment. © Cabral Horacio et al. #UTokyoResearch

Crystal structure of the sodium pump with a bound sodium ion. The sodium-pump is a protein complex consisting of α- and β- subunits, and a FXYD protein. Three sodium ion-binding sites (I-III) are identified in the transmembrane region. © Chikashi Toyoshima. #UTokyoResearch

Crystal structure of the sodium pump with a bound sodium ion. The sodium-pump is a protein complex consisting of α- and β- subunits, and a FXYD protein. Three sodium ion-binding sites (I-III) are identified in the transmembrane region. © Chikashi Toyoshima. #UTokyoResearch

(Top) The values of tenacity (processivity) and speed (velocity of reaction) of single molecules of long-tunneled ascomycete (mold) cellulase (TrCel7A) and short-tunneled basidiomycete (mushroom) cellulase (PcCel7C and PcCel7D) on a crystalline cellulose surface were compared. (Bottom) Biochemical comparison showed that the enzyme which has higher processivity is more effective at degrading crystalline cellulose. © Masahiro Samejima and Kiyohiko Igarashi. #UTokyoResearch

(Top) The values of tenacity (processivity) and speed (velocity of reaction) of single molecules of long-tunneled ascomycete (mold) cellulase (TrCel7A) and short-tunneled basidiomycete (mushroom) cellulase (PcCel7C and PcCel7D) on a crystalline cellulose surface were compared. (Bottom) Biochemical comparison showed that the enzyme which has higher processivity is more effective at degrading crystalline cellulose. © Masahiro Samejima and Kiyohiko Igarashi. #UTokyoResearch

Functionally impaired variants of COQ2 were associated with an increased risk of multiple system atrophy in both familial and sporadic patients. © Shoji Tsuji. #UTokyoResearch

Functionally impaired variants of COQ2 were associated with an increased risk of multiple system atrophy in both familial and sporadic patients. © Shoji Tsuji. #UTokyoResearch

Model of protein transport to the plant vacuole from donor organelles such as the ER, Golgi, and trans-Golgi network (TGN). At least three pathways operate vacuolar transport in plants: 1) RAB5- and RAB7-dependent, 2) RAB5-dependent but RAB7-independent, 3) RAB5- and RAB7-independent pathways. © 2014 Kazuo Ebine. #UTokyoResearch

Model of protein transport to the plant vacuole from donor organelles such as the ER, Golgi, and trans-Golgi network (TGN). At least three pathways operate vacuolar transport in plants: 1) RAB5- and RAB7-dependent, 2) RAB5-dependent but RAB7-independent, 3) RAB5- and RAB7-independent pathways. © 2014 Kazuo Ebine. #UTokyoResearch

The final step of biosynthetic pathway for sakuranetin, a flavonoid phytoalexin in rice, catalyzed by OsNOMT. ©Kazunori Okada. #UTokyoResearch

The final step of biosynthetic pathway for sakuranetin, a flavonoid phytoalexin in rice, catalyzed by OsNOMT. ©Kazunori Okada. #UTokyoResearch

In vivo mRNA introduction into central nervous system. © Satoshi Uchida et al. #UTokyoResearch

In vivo mRNA introduction into central nervous system. © Satoshi Uchida et al. #UTokyoResearch

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