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Comparison of galactolipid biosynthetic pathways in cyanobacteria, red algae, and green plants. The mgdE gene encodes the epimerase that catalyzes the conversion of glucolipids (GlcDG) to galactolipids (MGDG). Only cyanobacteria have this gene. In contrast, in red algae and green plants, MGDG is directly synthesized by transfer of galactose to diacylglycerol. © 2014 Naoki Sato. #UTokyoResearch

Image of layered methane hydrate deposits. © Jun Matsushima. #UTokyoResearch

Upper left: Cilia are present in the human trachea to discharge foreign bodies as sputum. Top right: fine 3D structure of cilia taken by cryo-electron tomography. The 96-nanometer periodic structure is visible. Bottom: If there is no nano-molecular ruler, a repeating structure is not formed and cilia are immotile. When the molecular ruler is present, dynein motor proteins are aligned in accordance with the ruler’s 96-nanometer period and cilia are motile. © 2014 Masahide Kikkawa…

Correlation between the rotational velocity around the Galactic center and the stellar surface iron abundance (Fe/H). © Kohei Hattori. #UTokyoResearch

(Left) Image of a platinous anti-cancer drug encapsulated in a polymeric micelle, (center) extent of cancer in transgenic mice that develop spontaneous pancreatic cancer treated with saline, unencapsulated free drug, and encapsulated drug, and (right) survival rates for mice under each treatment. © Cabral Horacio et al. #UTokyoResearch

Crystal structure of the sodium pump with a bound sodium ion. The sodium-pump is a protein complex consisting of α- and β- subunits, and a FXYD protein. Three sodium ion-binding sites (I-III) are identified in the transmembrane region. © Chikashi Toyoshima. #UTokyoResearch

One mol-scale synthesis of an intermediate of the anticancer drug camptothecin using a new immobilized osmium catalyst (PI Os). © Shū Kobayashi. #UTokyoResearch

The signaling pathway of defense response against blast fungus in rice. The OsMKK4-OsMPK3/OsMPK6 cascade regulates transactivation activity of OsWRKY53, and overexpression of the phospho-mimic mutant of OsWRKY53 leads to activation of a defense response against the blast fungus in rice plants. © 2014 Kazunori Okada. #UTokyoResearch

© Kanai Y. et al., 2014. Originally published in The Journal of Cell Biology. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201309066. #UTokyoResearch

Numbers of olfactory receptor genes in the genomes of 13 mammals. A truncated gene is a sequence that, due to incomplete genome assembly, cannot be determined to be a functional gene or a pseudogene. A phylogenetic tree of the species is also shown. © 2014 Yoshihito Niimura. #UTokyoResearch