Tengu (天狗, "heavenly dogs") are a class of supernatural creatures found in Japanese folklore and culture. They are one of the best known yōkai (monster-spirits) and are sometimes worshipped as Shinto kami (revered spirits or gods). Although they take their name from a dog-like Chinese demon (Tiangou), the tengu were originally thought to take the forms of birds of prey, and they are traditionally depicted with both human and avian characteristics.
Shugendō, loosely translated "path of training to achieve spiritual powers", revolves around the belief that mountains are home of the dead & of agricultural spirits. Traditions arose from hope of achieving magical skills, medical powers, & long life. One practice is to set up markers along mountain trails using precise procedures when entering sacred mountain spaces: mudras (hand gestures with religious meaning), mantras (sacred verbal incantations) & wakas (classical Japanese poems).
1890's. During a break, two kago bearers smoke kiseru pipes while their customer is being served tea by a waitress from a teahouse. The woman’s luggage is tied to the roof of the kago. During the Edo Period (1603-1868), only samurai were allowed to ride horses, while horse carriages were unknown. The kago therefore was Japan’s main mode of transportation until the invention of the jinrikisha (rickshaw) around 1868.