Detail: historiated initial-word panel of the story of Ruth with Ruth, Naomi and Boaz and his servants working of the field, at the beginning of the Book of Ruth to be read at Shavuot, Additional 22413, Fol 71, c 1322, near Lake Constance
Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190) was a German Holy Roman Emperor. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He became King of Italy in 1155 and was finally crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155. Two years later, the term "sacrum" (i.e. "holy") first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire. Barbarossa is "red beard" in Italian.