The Napoleonic Wars, which caused a surge in patriotism, inspired a renewed interest in traditional costumes. In 1812-1814, red and blue Russian dresses (sarafans) with an Empire-style waist and filigree buttons in the front became fashionable. / Empress Maria Feodorovna in a diamond tiara kokoshnik, circa 1880.
Maria Feodorovna (Princess Dagmar) (1847–1928) Denmark wearing a fur-trimmed red dress by François Flameng (Hermitage) in 1894. Wife of Alexander III (Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov) (1845-1894) Russia. 4th Child of King Christian IX 1818-1906) Denmark & Princess Louise (1817-1898) Hesse, Germany. Christian was not in the immediate line of succession to the Denmark throne. But, Christian became heir to the throne in the unexpected extinction of the senior line of the House of Oldenburg.